John Michael Crichton (/ˈkraɪtən/; October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director, and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction, and thriller genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, and over a dozen have been adapted into films. His literary works are usually within the action genre and heavily feature technology. His novels epitomize the techno-thriller genre of literature, often exploring technology and failures of human interaction with it, especially resulting in catastrophes with biotechnology. Many of his future history novels have medical or scientific underpinnings, reflecting his medical training and science background. He wrote, among other works, The Andromeda Strain (1969); Congo (1980); Sphere (1987); Travels (1988); Jurassic Park (1990); Rising Sun (1992); Disclosure (1994); The Lost World (1995); Airframe (1996); Timeline (1999); Prey (2002); State of Fear (2004); Next (2006), the final book published before his death; Pirate Latitudes (2009), an action adventure novel concerning 17th-century piracy in the Caribbean; Micro, an unfinished techno-thriller which was published in November 2011; and Dragon Teeth, a historical novel set during the "Bone Wars", published in May 2017.